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Commentary on Sermon 80 of Nahjul Balaghah (Part: II)
Author(s): Ayatullah al-Uzma Nasir Makarim Shirazi
Translator(s): Saleem Bhimji


Visits 338 categorization: Nahj Al-Balagha
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Important Points:
1. Similarities and Differences between Men and Women
Many researchers and experts have entered into discussions on the topic that: from the point of view of their physiology and also their privileges, are men and women identical or are there differences between the two genders?
In most cases, the belief that was espoused was that in their physiology, emotional level and intellectual capacity, differences exist between the genders, however they stated that these differences do not take away anything from the character of a woman, nor do they add anything to the character of a man. However undoubtedly, the differences which are present can lead to a differentiation in the responsibilities which exist in society between men and women.
From the societal point of view, many people believe that men have been created to be the leader, and this way of thinking led to an extreme ideology and another group rose up in opposition to them and believed that women were to be the leaders of society. Meanwhile, a third group came forth and rejected both ideologies and came with the notion of ‘human leadership’ (not based on gender).
What we gleam from the Islamic sources and what logic and intellect dictate in this area of discussion is that the human being has three aspects to their character:
• The humanistic and Divine nature;
• The scientific and cultural nature;
• The economic nature.
2. The Humanistic and Divine Nature
At the first level - which makes up the principle values of the human being, there is no difference between the man and woman and both are equal in the sight of Allah (S.w.T.) and both genders are able to traverse the path towards attaining closeness to Allah (S.w.T.) and continue on this path for perpetuity (until death). In other words, the way towards perfection has been kept open equally for both genders.
Therefore, the Qur'anic address in this area includes both men and women in an equal fashion and in one verse we read:
﴿مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِنْ ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنْثىَ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُ حَيَاةً طَيِّبَةً وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُمْ بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ﴾
Whoever acts righteously, [whether] male or female, should he be faithful, -We shall revive him with a good life and pay them their reward by the best of what they used to do. (9)
In another place in the Qur'an we read:
﴿إِنَّ الْمُسْلِمِينَ وَالْمُسْلِمَاتِ وَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَالْقَانِتِينَ وَالْقَانِتَاتِ وَالصَّادِقِينَ وَالصَّادِقَاتِ وَالصَّابِرِينَ وَالصَّابِرَاتِ وَالْخَاشِعِينَ وَالْخَاشِعَاتِ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقِينَ وَالْمُتَصَدِّقَاتِ وَالصَّائِمِينَ وَالصَّائِمَاتِ وَالْحَافِظِينَ فُرُوجَهُمْ وَالْحَافِظَاتِ وَالذَّاكِرِينَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا وَالذَّاكِرَاتِ أَعَدَّ اللَّهُ لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا﴾
Indeed the muslim men and the muslim women, the faithful men and the faithful women, the obedient men and the obedient women, the truthful men and the truthful women, the patient men and the patient women, the humble men and the humble women, the charitable men and the charitable women, the men who fast and the women who fast, the men who guard their private parts and the women who guard, the men who remember God greatly and the women who remember [God greatly] -God holds in store for them forgiveness and a great reward. (10)
In addition, this well-known verse of the Qur'an also classifies the spiritual proximity which one can attain to Allah (S.w.T.) as being accessible by anyone regardless of their gender - male or female:
﴿يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَى وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ﴾
O mankind! Indeed We created you from a male and a female, and made you nations and tribes that you may identify with one another. Indeed the noblest of you in the sight of God is the most God-consciousness among you. Indeed God is All-knowing, All-aware. (11)
There are also other such verses in the Qur'an which we will not quote here for sake of brevity.
In the Islamic traditions (statements from Prophet Muhammad (S) and his 12 Successors (a.s.)) this reality is also clearly visible.
In a hadith which the late Shaykh al-Kulayni quotes in his book Al-Kafi, we read the following:
The sister, by way of suckling with the same wet-nurse who also took care of and fed the Prophet Muhammad (S), came to the Prophet and when she entered into his room and saw him, she became extremely elated and spread her own coverlet on the ground and made him sit on it.
She then began to speak warm words with him and when she was about to leave the Prophet (S), her brother came (this sister and brother were two of the children of Halima Sa'diyah who was the suckling mother of the Prophet (S)), however the Prophet (S) did not treat his sister (by way of suckling) in the same way that he treated her brother (even though he treated them both with respect and love).
Some people asked the Prophet of Allah (S), “The same level of respect which you displayed to your sister you did not extend to your brother (by way of suckling) - is it because he is a man?” The Prophet (S) replied:
لِأَنَّهَا كَانَتْ أَبَرَّ بِوَالِدَيهَا مِنْهُ
“[This was because] she is much nicer to her mother and father than he (the brother) is.” (12)
It is interesting to note that the companions felt that how you treat a person should be based on their gender, however not only did the Prophet (S) not consider that as being a means of distinction (in society), rather he placed a woman - his sister, due to her upholding the Divine values and morals, at a loftier position.
The story of Nusaybah and the bravery which she displayed during the Battle of Uhud is yet another incident that we should ponder upon. During this intense battle, she provided water to the troops with no regard for the dangers involved in what she was doing and even when the enemy forces began to attack her, she defended herself from all angles!
When she finally escaped the battlefield, she had thirteen injuries on her body, and she eventually became a martyr in an area known as Yamama while she was fighting against Musaylama, and this is a well-known historical event.
The Prophet (S) said the following about her and her bravery in the Battle of Uhud:
لَمَقَاُم نُسَيْبَةُ بِنْتِ كَعْبٍ الْيَوْمُ خَيْرٌ مِنْ مَقَامِ فُلاَنٍ وَ فُلاَنٍ
Today, the rank and status of Nusaybah bint Ka'b is better than so and so (some of the people who were engaged in fighting in the Battle of Uhud). (13)
In addition, the story of Shatitah Nishaburi is also one which is well known. During her time, an individual named Muhammad b. 'Ali al- Nishaburi had collected a large amount of wealth and gifts for Imam Musa b. Ja'far (a.s.) from the Shi’a of his region. He then proceeded his journey to where the Imam was living and presented all of the cash and gifts to the Imam, after giving the things, the Imam (a.s.) said to him:
From amongst the 30,000 dinar and 50,000 dirham and the pieces of cloth that you have brought me, there is only one dirham and one piece of cloth which belongs to that faithful lady named Shatitah which I accept. You may return everything else back to its owners! (14)
This historical event also clearly shows us that the value of a person is not based on whether they are male or female; in fact we see that sometimes, women end up with an even greater status than men!
3. Mental and Cultural Similarities and Differences
In this section as well, there are no differences between men and women - meaning that the ways which one can attain knowledge are open to both genders equally - just as the famous Prophetic sentence states:
طَلَبُ الْعِلْمِ فَرِيضَةٌ عَلى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ وَ مُسْلِمَةٍ
Seeking knowledge is compulsory upon every Muslim man and Muslim woman. (15)
This sentence proves our statement (even if the word المسلمة - female Muslim) is not a part of the original saying of the Prophet (S) - however what is established is that this word (المسلم - Muslim) refers to the ‘species’ - regardless of gender just as can be seen in other traditions.
Therefore, there are no limitations from Islam (in this regards) and no limitations can be imposed upon women at any stage of their quest for knowledge and they too are able to traverse the road towards attaining perfection and completion in knowledge. In the history of Islam as well we see some great women personalities and some of these women have been mentioned in the books of hadith and have been introduced as women who have narrated traditions (from the Prophet (S) and the Infallible Imams (a.s.)).
4. Economic Similarities and Differences
In addition to the points mentioned above when we examine this third level, we see no difference between women and men - women too are permitted to possess their own wealth, just as men are.
Within the religion of Islam, women have been given true economic freedom which is in complete contrast to what we see in some “Western nations” which until today, do not afford women unfettered economic freedom and do not allow women the independence to spend their wealth as they see fit, except with the permission of their husbands.
In Islam, a woman has complete over her wealth and is not required to have her husband’s permission to spend it, and therefore can spend it in any legitimate (from the religious perspective) place, on anything, anyone or for anything!
However, if we put aside the slogans which are circulated [in terms of the economic status of the genders and look at this issue on a practical level], then we cannot deny the fact that in most instances, men are typically more active in the work place; and this could be due to some reasons:
Men, generally speaking, have more strength and muscle which allows them to accomplish strenuous tasks, and it is for this reason that they have a more prominent role in the economic affairs of the society.
The challenges which women face during pregnancy, delivery and subsequently the nurturing of children (especially for those who breastfeed their babies - even though Islamically this period only lasts for two years which is the maximum that a woman can breastfeed her child) plays a big part in taking away many years from the woman [in which she could have been a productive member of the outside workforce].
In addition, during this period, a woman may also lose some of her physical energy [if she merely sits at home taking care of her child and is not as physically active as she might have been on the job]. If we presume that on average, every woman has three children and spends a minimum of four years bringing up each one of them - from pregnancy until the time when they are able to be semi-mobile and on their own, then this means that twelve years have been spent outside of the workplace.
Perhaps it is for this reason that in almost all of the countries in the world, even in those countries in which there is an apparent equality amongst the sexes in all areas of life and in which religion does not play any role whatsoever in the over-all daily life experience, many jobs are placed on the shoulders of men and the majority of individuals who fill key positions of political, economic and social responsibility happen to be men.
Therefore, if we see that in some areas of life there are differences which are imposed between the responsibilities which exist between men and women - such as in the area of the judicial landscape, or differences in terms of the number of witnesses required based on their gender, or the differences in receiving inheritance, then these are all based on the discussions which we have mentioned above.
We can never state that there is a universal law or principle between these two genders being completely equal at the Divine and humanistic level, or the level of knowledge, culture and economic issues. Rather, we must state that the natural differences which exist between them must be accepted and that the baseless slogans of both genders being completely identical must never be accepted.
A Word About 'A'ysha and Her Life History:
'A'ysha was the daughter of Abu Bakr, the first caliph, who came from the clan of Taym - one of the branches of the tribe of the Quraysh. Her mother was Umm al-Ruman who was the daughter of 'Amr b. 'Uwaymir.
It is commonly held that 'A'ysha was born in the 4th year of the appointment to Prophethood (of Prophet Muhammad (S)) in Mecca and was brought up there. After the death of his [first and most beloved] wife Khadijah (a.s.), the Prophet (S) married her and it was in the month of Shawwal after the Battle of Badr, following the relentless insistence of her father Abu Bakr, that she finally moved into the house of the Prophet (S).
After the death of the Prophet (S) and during the period of the caliphate of her father Abu Bakr, and also after him, during the rule of 'Umar and even in the first-half of the caliphate of 'Uthman, 'A'ysha was a strong proponent of the governments of her time.
However in the second-half of the caliphate of 'Uthman, 'A'ysha began to brutally pester him and it was during this phase that a huge rift emerged between 'Uthman and 'A'ysha. This division slowly grew into full-blown enmity and with this, 'A'ysha took a stand within the ranks of the opponents of 'Uthman. Not only this, but she also tried to acquire a position of authority over the Muslim society and also played a key role in the revolution which was taking form against the rule of 'Uthman which continued until 'Uthman was eventually killed. 'A'ysha had hoped that after the killing of 'Uthman, the caliphate would be given to her cousin, Talha, thus the caliphate would return back to the tribe of Taym (her father’s tribe).
However when she realized that the people had given an oath of allegiance to the Commander of the Faithful 'Ali (a.s.) and that all of her schemes had been ruined, she altered her modus operandi and launched the declaration that she was seeking vengeance for the innocent blood of 'Uthman which had been shed! Thus, she became one of the founders of The Battle of Jamal in Baŝrah (Iraq) and fanned the flames of war alongside Talha and Zubayr!
When the primary supporters of The Battle of Jamal were defeated and the two staunch advocates, namely Talha and Zubayr, were killed and Imam 'Ali (a.s.), due to the immense respect he had for the Prophet (S), returned 'A'ysha back to the city of Medina with full respect and honour, she relegated herself to staying at home. Indeed she was a very conniving woman and it is for this reason that she considered herself worthy of issuing religious edicts (fatawa), and due to her political inclinations, we see that the previous caliphs allowed her the leeway to carry this out!
Ibn Sa'd in his work, al-Tabaqat, writes that 'Umar had set the yearly stipends for the wives of the Messenger of Allah (S) at 10,000 dinar, however he gave 'A'ysha 12,000 dinar! However when a difference broke out between 'Uthman and 'A'ysha, according to the famous historian, al-Ya’qubi, in his book of history, he cut her allowance by 2,000 dinar.

A dispute which arose between 'Uthman and 'A'ysha in relation to the deputation of Walid b. 'Uqbah became exasperated, as in addition to being one who consumed alcohol, Walid also treated some of the prominent companions of the Prophet of Allah (S) - such as Ibn Mas'ud with utter disregard. Even when he was brought to 'Uthman and witnesses bore testimony to the fact that he consumed alcohol, according to the historian al-Baladhari in his book Ansab al-Ashraf, not only did 'Uthman not reprimand his adopted brother Walid, rather he proceeded to punish the witnesses!
After this event, the witnesses sought refuge in the house of 'A'ysha, however 'Uthman let out a cry in the city of Medina:
Are the refractory Iraqis seeking refuge anywhere else other than the house of 'A'ysha!?
When 'A'ysha heard these words from 'Uthman, she took the shoes of the Messenger of Allah (S) in her hands, raised them high in the air and said:
The shoes of the Messenger of Allah (S) have not even become old yet and you have [in such a short period of time] thrown the tradition (sunnah) of the Prophet behind your back!?
When the people heard these words, a group of them took 'A'ysha’s side, while another group stood beside 'Uthman and both factions made their way to the masjid, physically accosting one another.
Eventually when 'Uthman was killed (16), 'A'ysha became elated; however when she saw that authority was now in the hands of 'Ali (a.s.), she became extremely upset since Imam 'Ali (a.s.) was known for his meticulousness when it came to maintaining justice, and because of this the plots that 'A'ysha made would not take shape, so she began to harbor even deeper animosity in her heart for the Imam.
Al-Tabari in his book of history, Al-Umam wal Muluk, Ibn Sa'd in his book Al-Tabaqat, and Ibn Athir in his book Al-Kamil have all stated:
When the news reached 'A'ysha about the martyrdom of 'Ali (a.s.) she became elated, went into prostration (sajdah) to thank Allah, and then out of the joy that she felt, recited the following words of poetry:
فَأَلْقَتْ عَصَاهَا وَاسْتَقَرَّبِهَا النَّوَى كَمَا قَرَّ عَيْناً بِالإِيَابِ الْمُسَافِرِ
He dropped his staff and found comfort and ease;
Just as the person who is elated when his beloved returns from a journey.
Thus, she wanted to say that her state of grief was finally and she found tranquility in her heart [at the death of Imam 'Ali (a.s.)]!
Even more mindboggling than this was that she began to praise Ibn Muljim, and when Zaynab the daughter of Umm Salama heard this, she condemned 'A'ysha at which point she ('A'ysha) realized what she had done, and albeit merely pretending to be remorseful, apologized and said:
I was completely unaware of what I was doing! Anytime this happens, please remind me! (At this point in time, 'A'ysha was nearly 50 years old.)
One of the most astonishing episodes in the life of 'A'ysha was her rapid change of attitude in regards to 'Uthman.
According to the [Sunni scholar] Ibn Abi al-Hadid:
Whoever reviews the books of history will see things clearly written that 'A'ysha was one of the most staunch opponents of ‘Uthman. She was the first person to ever use the word “نعثل” [na’thal] in regards to him when she said:
أُقْتُلُوا نَعْثَلاً قَتَلَ اللَّهُ نَعْثَلاً
Kill the na’thal! May Allah kill the na’thal!
The meaning of na’thal is an old, foolish man and meant a man with a long, full beard. In some references, it is noted that the word na’thal also refers to a Jewish man who has an exceptionally long beard - however it is not clear why 'A'ysha used this word to describe 'Uthman.
In any case, when 'A'ysha heard that following the death of 'Uthman, the people had chosen 'Ali (a.s.) as this leader, she said:
If what I hear is true, then I wish that the sky would fall down upon me!
It is from this point in time that she initiated the slogan of:
قُتِلُوا ابْنَ عَفَّانَ مَظْلُوماً
['Uthman] Ibn 'Affan has been killed unjustly!
From here, through the instigation of Talha and Zubayr, she began her quest to “avenge the blood” of 'Uthman and invited the masses to stand up against [the rightful caliph] 'Ali (a.s.)!
The Sunni scholar, Ibn Abi al-Hadid then states:
When 'A'ysha began her revolt against 'Ali (a.s.) she wanted Umm Salama (one of the wives of the Prophet (S)) to accompany her and invited her to join the movement. She also spoke to her about the oppression that 'Uthman had faced during his life.
Startled, Umm Salama was taken aback and said to her: “Until yesterday, you encouraged the masses to work against 'Uthman and referred to him as a na’thal - how is it that today, you have risen up to avenge his blood!? Bear in mind that you know that the status of 'Ali (a.s.) is much greater (than others) with the Prophet (S), and if you have forgotten this, then I will remind you!”
'A'ysha replied: “Go ahead and tell me.”
From here, Umm Salama began to relate the story during the lifetime of the Prophet (S) when he mentioned to the people that 'Ali (a.s.) was the only one fit for the caliphate after him. 'A'ysha confirmed that this event had occurred to which Umm Salama asked her: “Then why are you trying to rise up against him?” 'A'ysha replied: “To rectify the situation among the people.” (17)
The famous historian, al-Tabari also narrated the following:
When 'A'ysha said that 'Uthman has been killed unjustly and that she was going to rise up to avenge the innocent blood of 'Uthman, someone said to her, ‘I swear by God! The very first person who sought to pick a flaw with 'Uthman was you and it was you who stated:
أُقْتُلُوا نَعْثَلاً فَقَدْ كَفَرَ
Kill the na’thal ('Uthman) as he has renegaded from the faith!
'A'ysha replied: “Yes, however the people first wanted 'Uthman to repent and this is exactly what he did and after repenting they killed him. I accept that I said what I did about him however now I say that he was oppressed and this (what I now say) is better than what I said in the past!” (18)
The same thing has been narrated by Ibn Athir in his book Al-Kamil. (19)
Al-Bukhari in his book, al- Sahih has also narrated the story, and how there was jealousy which 'A'ysha harbored in her heart towards Sayyida Khadijah (a.s.) even though Khadijah died before the Prophet (S) married 'A'ysha. (20)
The story of 'A'ysha’s travel towards Baŝrah and her reaching a city named Haw'ab and the loud scowls which the dogs of that area made is a well-known historical event as well.
It has been narrated that when 'A'ysha reached Haw'ab and was told the name of the locality, she recalled the words which the Prophet (S) had warned her about when he said:
Be aware of that day when you will be travelling and the dogs of Haw'ab will gather around you, and begin to bark and scowl!
When she reached Haw'ab and the dogs began to gather around her and make loud noises, 'A'ysha became extremely upset and decided to turn back and go home; however there were some people with her who forced her to reconsider. These individuals searched for and subsequently gathered 50 of the Bedouin Arabs of that region and asked them to swear an oath that they were actually not in Haw'ab! (21)
It was on a Monday night on the 10th of Shawwal, either in the year 57 A.H. (677 CE) or 59 A.H. (679 CE) that 'A'ysha died in Medina. Prayers over her body were performed by Abu Hurayrah and she was [apparently] laid to rest in the graveyard known as Al-Baqi'.


Resorce and refrence

9. Al-Qur'an, Suratul Nahl (16), verse 97.
10. Al-Qur'an, Suratul Ahzab (33), verse 35.
11. Al-Qur’an, Suratul Hujurat (49), verse 13.
12. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, pg. 161.
13. Safinatul Biharul Anwar, under the letter “نسب”.
14. Biharul Anwar, v. 58, pg. 73.
15. This tradition has been mentioned by the late ‘Allamah Majlisi in his book, Awali al-Layali from the Noble Prophet of Islam (S) and has also been mentioned in Mizan al-Hikmah from the book Majmu'atul Warram.
16. The death of 'Uthman has been related as such from www.Wikipedia.org [last accessed on November 18, 2011] - TR.
“Finding the gate of 'Uthman house strongly guarded by his supporters, the rebels climbed the back wall and sneaked inside, leaving the guards on the gate unaware of what was going on inside. The rebels entered his room and struck blows at his head. Naila, the wife of 'Uthman, threw herself on his body to protect him. Raising her hand to protect him she had her fingers chopped off and was pushed aside, and further blows were struck until he was dead. The supporters of 'Uthman, then counterattacked the assassins and in turn killed them. There was further fighting between the rebels and the supporters of 'Uthman, with casualties on both sides, after which the rebels looted the house.
The rioters wanted to mutilate his body and were keen that he be denied burial. When some of the rioters came forward to mutilate the body of 'Uthman, his two widows, Naila and Ramlah b. Sheibah, covered him and raised loud cries which deterred the rioters. The rebels left the house and the supporters of ‘Uthman at the gate hearing this, entered but it was too late.
Thereafter the rioters maintained a presence around the house in order to prevent the dead body from being carried to the graveyard.
After the body of 'Uthman had been in the house for three days, Naila, 'Uthman wife, approached some of his supporters to help in his burial, but only about a dozen people responded. These included Marwan, Zayd b. Thabit, Huwatib b. al-Farah, Jabir b. Muta'am, Abu Jahm b. Hudayfa, Hakim b. Hazam and Niyar b. Mukarram. The body was lifted at dusk, and because of the blockade, no coffin could be procured. The body was not washed, as Islamic teaching states that martyrs’ bodies are not supposed to be washed before burial.
Thus 'Uthman was carried to the graveyard in the clothes that he was wearing at the time of his assassination.
Some people say that 'Ali attended the funeral, but there is however, overwhelming evidence to the effect that he did not. Naila followed the funeral with a lamp, but in order to maintain secrecy the lamp had to be extinguished. Naila was accompanied by some women including 'A'ysha - 'Uthman’s daughter.
The body was carried to Jannat al-Baqi, the Muslim graveyard. It appears that some people gathered there, and they resisted the burial of 'Uthman in the graveyard of the Muslims. The supporters of 'Uthman insisted that the body should be buried in Jannat al-Baqi. They later buried him in the Jewish graveyard behind Jannat al-Baqi. Some decades later, the Omayyad rulers destroyed the wall of the Jewish cemetery and widened the Muslim graveyard to make his tomb inside.
The funeral prayers were led by Jabir b. Muta'am, and the dead body was lowered into the grave without much of a ceremony. After the burial, Naila the widow of 'Uthman and 'A'ysha the daughter of 'Uthman wanted to speak, but they were advised to remain quiet due to possible danger from the rioters.”
17. Commentary of Nahjul Balagha of Ibn Abil Hadid; vol. 6, pg. 215 (summarized).
18. The History of al-Tabari, v. 3, pg. 477.
19. Al-Kamil of Ibn Athir, v. 3, pg. 206.
20. Sahih al-Bukhari, v. 5, pg. 48, Section on the Marriage of Khadijah and her merits.
Note from the translator: The following traditions have been extracted from http://www.sahih-bukhari.com [last accessed on October 13, 2011]:
Volume 5, Book 58, Number 164: Narrated by 'A'ysha: I did not feel jealous about any of the wives of the Prophet as much as I did for Khadijah (although) she died before he married me, for I often heard him mentioning her, and Allah had told him to give her the good tidings that she would have a palace of Qasab (i.e. pipes of precious stones and pearls in Paradise), and whenever he slaughtered a sheep, he would send her women friends a good share of it.
Volume 5, Book 58, Number 165: Narrated by 'A'ysha: I did not feel jealous about any woman as much as I did of Khadijah because Allah’s Apostle used to mention her very often. He married me after three years of her death, and his Lord (or Gabriel) ordered him to give her the good news of having a palace of Qasab in Paradise.
Volume 5, Book 58, Number 166: Narrated by 'A'ysha: I did not feel jealous about any of the wives of the Prophet as much as I did of Khadijah even though I did not see her, but the Prophet used to mention her very often, and whenever he slaughtered a sheep, he would cut its parts and send them to the women friends of Khadijah. When I sometimes said to him, “(You treat Khadijah in such a way) as if there is no woman on earth except Khadijah,” he would say, “Khadijah was such-and-such, and from her I had children.”
Volume 5, Book 58, Number 168: Narrated by Abu Hurayra: Gabriel came to the Prophet and said, “O Allah’s Apostle! This is Khadijah coming to you with a dish having meat soup (or some food or drink). When she reaches you, greet her on behalf of her Lord (i.e. Allah) and on my behalf, and give her the glad tidings of having a Qasab palace in Paradise wherein there will be neither any noise nor any fatigue (trouble).
“Narrated 'A'ysha: Once Hala bint Khuwailid, Khadijah’s sister, asked the permission of the Prophet to enter. Upon that, the Prophet remembered the way Khadijah used to ask permission, and that upset him. He said, “O Allah! Hala!” So I became jealous and said, “What makes you remember an old woman amongst the old women of Quraish, an old woman (with a teethless mouth) of red gums who died long ago, and in whose place Allah has given you somebody better than her?”
Volume 7, Book 62, Number 156: Narrated by 'A'ysha: I never felt so jealous about any wife of Allah’s Apostle as I did of Khadijah because Allah’s Apostle used to remember and praise her too often and because it was revealed to Allah’s Apostle that he should give her (Khadijah) the glad tidings of her having a palace of Qasab in Paradise.
Volume 8, Book 73, Number 33: Narrated by 'A'ysha: I never felt so jealous about any woman as I did of Khadijah, though she had died three years before the Prophet married me, and that was because I heard him mentioning her too often, and because his Lord had ordered him to give her the glad tidings that she would have a palace in Paradise, made of Qasab and because he used to slaughter a sheep and distribute its meat among her friends.
Volume 9, Book 93, Number 576: Narrated by 'A'ysha: I never felt so jealous about any woman as I felt of Khadijah, for Allah ordered him (the Prophet) to give Khadijah the glad tidings of a palace in Paradise (for her).
21. This event has been narrated by Ibn Abil Hadid in detail in vol. 6, of his Commentary of Nahjul Balagha on page 225. In addition, 'Allamah Amini, in his work Al-Ghadir, vol. 3, has also narrated this event from many sources of the Ahl as-Sunnah (page 188).
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