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Question text

Is this claim of ibn Taymiyah’s true that Shira’ verse has been revealed about Suhayb?


Visits 326 categorization: Occasion of Revelation
Answer

Ibn Taymiyah says that: “it has been said that this verse has been revealed about Suhayb”. [1]
In answer, we should say that: the story that some have quoted is that: Suhayb wanted to emigrate to Medina alone, polytheists stopped him but he emigrated to Medina by giving them money and property, and he joined the Prophet (s.a.w.) in Quba’ masque. When the Prophet (s.a.w.) was informed of the event said: “Suhayb took advantage, Suhayb took advantage”, or he said that: “the deal was profitable”, then this verse was revealed. [2] But this story is in dispute from various points of view:
Firstly: it has been written in some narrations that Abu Bakr said: “O Suhayb, your deal yield profit”, not the Prophet (s.a.w.).[3] ibn Husham has also quoted this very story about Suhayb, but he has not said anything regarding the revelation of the verse about Suhayb.[4]
Secondly: this verse is not in conformity with Suhayb’s story; because the verse is about admiring someone who has generously and sincerely offered his life and his aim is just reaching Allah’s satisfaction, but in Suhayb’s story, he has given his property for keeping his life. Apart from this, most of the narrations don't mention anything regarding the revelation of the verse about Suhayb.
Thirdly: generally, these narrations, except one narration from ibn Abbas while being three years old at the time of emigration, have been quoted generally or directly by Suhayb or by one of the Successors who has not seen the Prophet’s age; such as: Akramah, ibn Musayib and ibn Jurayh, We know that if the content of a narration is in the praise of its narrator, it will make the narration worthless, unless his infallibility be proved at first.
Fourthly: Suhayb is from those who have refused to swear allegiance to Ali ibn Abi Talib (a.s.) and he is considered as one of the enemies of the Prophet’s household, therefore his narration for taking this virtue away from Amir al- Muminin (a.s.) is not acceptable. [5]
Prophet’s Household (a.s.) - Twelve Imams - Imam Ali (a.s.) - Virtues of Amir al- Muminin - in the Holy Quran - Shira’ verse
Revelation of Shira’ verse about Zubayr and Miqdad!
Question: Is this claim of Fazl ibn Ruzbahan true that the Shira’ verse has been revealed about Zubayr and Miqdad?
Answer: Fazlibn Ruzbahan says that: “most of interpreters believe that Shira’ verse has been revealed about Zubayr ibn Awam and Miqdad ibn Aswad, when the Prophet (s.a.w.) sent them to lower the body of Khabib ibn Adi who has been hanged in Mecca and there were forty of Polytheists around him, they did their best to lower the body from the gallows, and Shira’ verse was revealed for this reason”. [6]
In answer to him, we should say that: firstly: this matter that Fazl ibn Ruzbahan has claimed that most of interpreters believe that the verse is about Zubayr and Miqdad, is a mere lie. How would it be possible, while Fakhr Razi who collects the quotations about interpretation and cause of revelation of verses has never mentioned this quotation as one of the quotations in this regard? Zimakhshari and also Syuti who collect all of the narrations about verses in Tafsir “Durr al- Manthur”, have never indicated such a matter.
Secondly: ibn Abd al- Bar says about Khabib in Isti’ab that: “the person, who was sent by the Prophet (s.a.w.) for lowering the body of Khabib, was Amr ibn Umayah Zumri, not Zubayr and Miqdad.
Thirdly: many narrations which have been quoted by Sunnis consider the revelation of the verse about Imam Ali (a.s.) which is in contradiction to the narration of Fazl ibn Ruzbahan. [7]


resources and references

[1] - Minhaj al- Sunnah; Al- Sirah al- Halbiyah, vol. 2, p. 27.
[2] - Durr al- Manthur, vol. 1, p. 204.
[3] - Al- Sirah al- Halbiyah, vol. 2, p. 24.
[4] - Al- Sirah al- Nabawiyah, vol. 2, p. 121.
[5] - Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts, vol. 1, p. 436.
[6] - Dala’il al- Sidq, vol. 2, p. 128 and 129.
[7] - Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts, vol. 1, p. 437.
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