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Why is the Holy Qur'an a Miracle and how is it a Miracle?

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Surat Al-Baqarah: 23-24
﴿وَإِن كُنتُمْ فِي رَيْبٍ مِّمَّا نَزَّلْنَا عَلَىٰ عَبْدِنَا فَأْتُوا بِسُورَةٍ مِّن مِّثْلِهِ وَادْعُوا شُهَدَاءَكُم مِّن دُونِ اللَّـهِ إِن كُنتُمْ صَادِقِينَ﴾ ﴿فَإِن لَّمْ تَفْعَلُوا وَلَن تَفْعَلُوا فَاتَّقُوا النَّارَ الَّتِي وَقُودُهَا النَّاسُ وَالْحِجَارَةُ أُعِدَّتْ لِلْكَافِرِينَ﴾
23. "And if you are in doubt concerning what We have sent down to Our (faithful) Servant, then bring a chapter like it, and invoke your helpers besides Allah, should you be truthful."
24. "And if you do not do so-and you will not- then, beware the Fire whose fuel will be humans and stones, prepared for the faithless."
After Allah (s.w.t.) explains the state of the hypocrite and faithless, and, through the creation of the heaven and the earth, sending down rain and growing plants on the ground, proves the existence of the Creator and Cherisher of the universe, He begins to validate the rightfulness of the Holy Qur'an and the truthfulness of His Messenger.
In order to show everyone the miraculousness of the Qur'an with clear evidence, according to one's portion of wit and understanding, that the Qur'an will be an argument for all, Allah confirms the prophet-hood of the Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h.) and the authenticity of the Holy Qur'an by suggesting a challenge, a direct confrontation, not only to all the contemporaries of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) but also to men in all ages. "And if you are in doubt concerning what We have sent down to Our (faithful) Servant,"
It addresses all the rejecters, with a concrete test, saying that if you imagine that the Qur'an, which has been sent down from Pure Holiness to the chosen servant of Allah in the form of statements and with the combination of ordinary alphabetical letters, is not from Him and it is the word of a human, then since outwardly you are in the same state from the point of being a human as the Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.) is, you should be able to produce a chapter like that of the Qur'an and call your own witnesses that are like you, the disbelievers of the Qur'an. You would compare your evidence with one of the chapter of the Qur'an, even if it be a small one such as chapter Kawthar and the like. If those two were similar in comparison in all their qualities, merits and privileges, you could rightfully reject the legitimacy of the Qur'an.
The disbelievers and pagan Arabs, who were the masters of literature and eloquence, refrained from accepting this challenge despite their pride and haughtiness in eloquence and avoided the competition. Therefore, inevitably, they turned the literary contest into a bloody battle. Thus, getting killed was easier for them than being disgraced and defeated in a literary contest. Arab literature became helpless and meager against the challenge of the Qur'an. Neither those who lived at the time of the Qur'an's revelation, nor the people born upcoming centuries could bring anything like the Holy Book, nor could they do anything against it in spite of trying with their utmost strength. They were thus forced to retreat after exerting utmost efforts.
Why is the Holy Qur'an a Miracle and how is it a miracle?
Being complete true revelation, the Qur'an is itself a miracle. As it is authentically known and also was mentioned in the above, at the time of the Qur'an's revelation the literary talent and eloquence of Arabs were at their peak, yet the miracles of the Qur'an is not confined to its inimitable literary excellence and eloquence. It stands on its own innumerous different merits some of which are beyond the reach of the complete conception of the literary geniuses of the Arab world. It has such a rhetorical capacity and linguistic excellence that is able to express different views and knowledge in a manner that is understood and appreciated by every rational human being of any standard and accomplishment of all the ages. Then everybody in any time, once provided with the opportunity to become acquainted with the Holy Qur'an, which offers information by which all of his/her arguments will be completed, he/she can find himself or herself convinced by it. Such extensive knowledge and such power of expression are beyond the limitations of human ability. Even of the literate Arab people, as were previously referred to, especially at the time of the Qur'an's revelation when the literature of the Arabic language had reached its climax, none dared to bring a chapter similar to even its shortest one. This very single point is the least miraculous aspect of the Qur'an.
There is no doubt that if the Qur'an were the word of a human and the Prophet (p.b.u.h.), himself, who was known to the world as an illiterate one, had produced it, they would bring many Qur'ans like it and would prove that this is not the word of Allah revealed to him (p.b.u.h.). In that condition, the enemies of Islam would maintain their works which would be available everywhere and in any ages so that they could publish and distribute them, even now, to defame the one genuine Qur'an, but there is none.
Apart from its inimitable literary excellence, the Holy Qur'an with its other names such as 'Furqan' and 'Tibyan' referring to the abilities it has, presents to the human world definite prophecies fulfilled and yet to be fulfilled, and long after. It contains some facts about endowments in nature which the human knowledge of science as it progresses will have to understand, for its further advancement. The perfectness of such nature, naturally, will be the last word with regard to the ideas, religious and social laws, sciences, and many other things that it contains and will remain forever, until the Hereafter.
This universality of the truth expressed in the idea and beauty and the attractive force of the language is so divine that, as we said before, it is beyond the reach of the expressive power of any limited being. It is in this regard that the Holy Qur'an claims to be not only the word of Allah, inimitable, but the Final Word in respect to truth and justice the better or even the like of it is impossible to be produced by any one.
However, it is true to say simply and shortly that the Holy Qur'an is a miracle with respect to its contents which is the source of all knowledge and science, as it itself says : " Say : If the sea were ink (wherewith to write out) for the words of my Lord, the sea would surely be consumed before the words of my Lord are exhausted, though We were to bring the like of that (sea) to add thereto for its aid", (Sura Al-Kahf, No. 18, verse 109).
Thus, this verse, by itself, is a vital piece of evidence regarding the correctness of the above stated claim. (1)
Why do Prophets Need Miracles?
We know that the Divine mission of prophet-hood is a great rank endowed upon some of the purified distinguished members of the human race. Since the purpose of prophet-hood is the comprehensive guidance ruling over the body and spirit of individuals, and society, toward perfection and the laying down of a legal system and social order for mankind, the assumption of responsibility involved is necessarily heavy and taxing. So, it requires great capacity and energy. Allah, therefore, bestows the position of prophet-hood on those who have the ability and capacity to receive and follow through the light of revelation. This unique privilege and uniqueness of prophets is also shown in their miracles, which all of them had. And, to prevent some false, deceitful impostors from claiming the position, it is necessary that, besides the revelation, the real ones should have sufficient evidence to bear testimony to the truth of their declaration and prove the claim that they are sent by Allah. That is, a prophet should utter such words and exhibit such deeds which could not be uttered or performed by any natural means within the power of a finite being, such as restoring the dead to life again, communicating with animals and inanimate bodies, and the likes of them. These supernatural events are termed as miracles.
The prophet who has a miracle should introduce it to people and invite them to challenge with it. If they can produce none similar to that, thus, by the means of his miracle, he proves the truthfulness of his declaration.
The Holy Qur'an,
The Everlasting Miracle of the Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.)!
Amongst the miracles issued by the Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.), the Qur'an is the best remaining evidence of his rightfulness. We know, of course, that, according to what the leading scholars of Islam have said, he (p.b.u.h.) had about 4440 miracles. But the Qur'an is a Book beyond the thoughts and mind of a mortal being. None has been able to bring one similar to it yet. It is a great heavenly miracle.
The reason that amongst all the miracles of the Messenger of Allah (p.b.u.h.) the Qur'an has been chosen as the greatest remaining evidence of legitimacy of the Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.) is that it is a miracle which is 'expressive', 'everlasting', 'world-wide', and 'spiritual'.
Each of the former prophets (a.s.) had to accompany his miracle to prove its inimitability when he used to invite his opponents for challenging and bringing the like of it. In fact, his miracles could not express themselves and it was the explanations of the prophet that would complete them. This statement is also true for all the miracles of the Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.) except the Holy Qur'an.
The Qur'an is a clear miracle which need not be introduced. It invites others to itself; demands the rejecters to challenge it while it defeats them, and condemns them, and it always stands victorious. That is why it, after passing centuries, viz., since the departure of the Prophet (p.b.u.h.) up to the present, has been continuing its invitation the same as it did during his lifetime (p.b.u.h). It is both religion and miracle; law, and the document of the law.
The Holy Qur'an, Global and Eternal
The reputation of the Holy Qur'an cleft the bonds of time and distance and influenced beyond them. The miracles of the prophets before the Prophet of Islam (p.b.u.h.), and even his own miracles save the Qur'an, happened in a special period of time, at a definite place and for a specific group of people. For example: the utterances of the holy little child of Virgin Mary, and raising the dead by Jesus (a.s.) were done at some definite times and places before the eyes of some particular people. And we know that regarding the things that depend on time and place, the farther we move away from them correlatively the weaker they become. This is one of the properties of affairs related to time.
But, the Holy Qur'an does not depend on time and place. Its brilliance and authority that illuminated the darkness of Arabia fourteen centuries ago continues unwaveringly to shine with its original splendor. Besides that, the passing of time, the advancement of science and the development of information have made it possible for us to understand it and take its advantages even more than the nations of former ages did. It is evident that what time and place cannot influence will continue to be everywhere in the world for eternity. It is also clear that a world-wide everlasting religion should have a world-wide everlasting document of legitimacy in its possession.
Then we can discuss the Holy Qur'an from different points of view and respects including:
1-modern science2-scientific explorations3-rotation of the Earth4-reproduction in the plant kingdom5- general reproduction in all the particles of the world6- general gravity7- the surrendering of the Sun and the Moon8- the secrets of the creation of mountains9- the advent of the world10- the existence of life on other planets11- the winds, the pollinator of plants12- the question of the roundness of the Earth (2)
And many other scientific facts and knowledge about the world can be found in the Holy Qur'an, too.

resources and references

(1) O' dear respected reader of this book! Have you ever thought that when more than two - thirds of the globe is covered with sea water and if we consider it twice as much when we use it entirely as ink in order to write out the science and secrets of the Qur'an, i.e. the word of Allah, sooner would the doubled oceans of the globe be exhausted than would the words of Allah, the science and secrets of the Qur'an? Then be careful when considering how magnificent the Glorious Qur'an is!
(2) For details, refer to: 'The Holy Qur'an and the Last Prophet (p.b.u.h.)' p.147, (Persian version)
Reference: www.al-shia.org

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