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Question text

Does the word of “الظالمين” “the cruel people” in the verse of “Ibtila” include those who have committed personal sins too?


Visits 384 categorization: Qur’anic Sciences
Answer

First it should be said that: literally cruelty means putting something in somewhere other than its own place. And terminologically it means exceeding the limits which have been determined by the legislator or tradition. Therefore, the major and minor sins are cruelty; because, the sinner has exceeded the limits determined by the legislator. The cruelty has been used in three meanings in the Holy Quran:
1- Being unjust to Allah
It is the greatest kind of cruelty which relates to polytheism and blasphemy. The Almighty God says:﴿فَمَنْ أَظْلَمُ مِمَّنْ کَذَّبَ بِآياتِ اللهِ﴾“Who then is more unjust than he who rejects Allah's communications and turns away from them?” [1] He also says:﴿إِنَّ الشِّرْکَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ﴾
“Most surely polytheism is a grievous iniquity”. [2]
2- Being unjust to others
The Almighty God says:﴿إِنَّمَا السَّبِيلُ عَلَى الَّذِينَ يَظْلِمُونَ النّاسَ﴾“The way (to blame) is only against those who oppress men”. [3]
3- Being unjust to himself
The Almighty God says:﴿وَمَنْ يَتَعَدَّ حُدُودَ اللهِ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ﴾“And whoever goes beyond the limits of Allah, he indeed does injustice to his own soul” [4] Also he says: ﴿وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْ ذلِکَ فَقَدْ ظَلَمَ نَفْسَهُ﴾ “And whoever does this, he indeed is unjust to his own soul”. [5]
According to these three kinds of cruelty this part of the verse of “Ibtila” which says:﴿لايَنالُ عَهدى الظّالِمين﴾“My covenant does not include the unjust people” [6] includes all kinds of cruel men and oppressors, therefore the covenant of Imamate does not include those who have oppressed- whether they are injustice to others or to themselves- and the oppressor and the sinner. [7]


resources and references

[1] - An'am, verse 157.
[2] - Luqman, verse 13.
[3] - Shura, verse 42.
[4] - Talaq, verse 1.
[5] - Baqarah, verse 231.
[6] - Baqarah, verse 124.
[7] - Ali Asghar Rizwani, Imamology and answering to the doubts (1), p. 115.
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Ref: www.makarem.ir


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