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Question text

Does the Deliverance verse (Iblagh) denote the caliphate and succession of His Highness Ali (a.s.)?


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Answer

The Most High God in the holy Qur’an says: “O Apostle! Deliver what has been revealed to you from your lord; and if you do it not, then you have not delivered His message and Allah will protect you from the people; surely Allah will not guide the unbelieving people.” (Quran, surah 5:67)
In different commentary, tradition (Hadith) and history books written by scholars of Sunnis, many traditions have been narrated clearly expressing the above verse has been revealed about Ali (a.s.).
These traditions have been narrated by a large number of Companions such as: Ziyd ibn Arqam, Abu Said Khidri, Ibn Abbas, Jabir ibn Abdullah Ansari,
Abu Hurayrah, Bara ibn `Azib, Hozayfah, Amir ibn Liyli ibn Zumrah and ibn Masud. they have said that: “the above verse is about Ali (a.s.) and it has been revealed regarding the event of Ghadir.”
Shiahs believe that His Highness Prophet (s.a.w.) assembled people in Ghadir Khumm and after delivering a long sermon in a loud voice, called them to witness and they testified that His Highness was more appropriate for authority (awla) over them than themselves. Then Prophet (s.a.w.) took Ali’s hand and held it up and said: “For whomever I am his master (mawla), Ali will be his master. Oh God! Be friendly with the friends of Ali and enemy of the enemies of Ali. Whoever helps him, help him and whoever leaves him, humiliate him.”
Then he dressed Ali (a.s.) in his own turban and ordered his companions to congratulate him on being Amir Al-Muminin, thus they did so. Abu- bakr and Umar who were ahead of the Companions said to him: “well done, O son of Abu-Talib, for now you are our master and the master of all the believing men and women.”(1)
After swearing allegiance to Ali (a.s.), this verse was revealed: “this day have I perfected your religion for you and completed My favor unto you and have chosen for you as religion Al-ISLAM.
Shias firmly believe in it and consider it as an undeniable matter.
A large number of Sunnis ulama have discussed this issue in detail, so we mention some of them here:
In his Musnad, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal has quoted from Ziyd ibn arqam that: “he said: ‘we assembled with the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.) in the valley of Khumm. Then he ordered us to say a prayer so we prayed the noontime prayers with His Highness. Then he gave us a speech. The sun was blazing hot so he sat in the shade of a piece of cloth and said: ‘am I not more appropriate for authority (awla) over the believers than themselves?’ ‘Yes.’ They answered. He said: ‘for whomever I am his master (mawla), this Ali will be his master. Oh God! Be friendly with the friends of Ali and enemy of the enemies of Ali. (2)
In his Khasais, Imam Nasai has quoted from Ziyd ibn Arqam that: “he said: ‘the Prophet (s.a.w.) upon returning from the farewell pilgrimage (Hajjatul-Wada) stopped in Ghadir Khumm and ordered us to assemble around the trees. Then he said: ‘It seems that God has called me unto Himself and I must obey His call. But I leave two precious things among you that each one is greater than the other: the Book of God and My Household. Be careful as to how you behave toward them. These two will never be separated from each other until they encounter me at Kawthar (on the Day of Judjment)’. Then he said: ‘Allah is my master (mawla) and I am the master of all the believers’, then he took Ali’s hand and said: ‘for whomever I am his master (mawla), this person (Ali) is also his master. Oh God! Be friendly with the friends of Ali and the enemy of his enemies. (3)
Hakim Niyshaburi has quoted from the Two Scholars (Bukhari and Muslim) that they said: “when the Prophet (s.a.w.) returned from the last pilgrimage (Hajjatul-Wada) stopped in Ghadir khumm and ordered people to gather under the trees. Then he said:
“It seems that God has called me unto Himself and I must obey His call, but I leave two precious things among you that each one is greater than the other: the Book of God and My Household. Be careful as to how you behave toward them after me. These two will never be separated from each other until they encounter me at Kawthar.” Then he said: “The Almighty and Glorious God is my master (mawla) and I am the master of all the believers. Then he took Ali’s hand and said: “whoever whose mawla am I, this Ali is his mawla. Oh God! Be friendly with the friends of Ali and the enemy of his enemies.” (4)
In his sahih, Muslim has also quoted this tradition from Ziyd ibn Arqam but he has summarized it. He says: “one day we stopped near the pond of Khumm which had been located between Mecca and Medina. Then Prophet (s.a.w.) gave us a speech in which, after praising God and advising us, he said: ‘now, beware o people! I am a human being like you. The messenger of Allah (His angel) will come soon and I will obey His call. But I leave two great and precious things. The first one is the Book of God in which there are light and guidance so resort to it.’ Then he reminded us so much about the Book of God and persuaded us to resort to it. Then he said: “the second one is My Household. I swear you by God not to forget my household, I swear you by God not to forget my household, I swear you by God not to forget my household.”(5)
Imam Ahmad has quoted from Bara ibn Azib from two other ones that he said: “we accompanied the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w.).we stopped in Ghadir Khumm. It was time saying noon prayers (zuhr) so we prayed with Prophet. There had been laid a carpet for the Prophet (s.a.w.) under two trees. After saying the noontime prayers, His Highness took Ali’s hand and said: ‘do I not have more authority upon the believers than they have themselves?’ they answered: ‘yes.’ His Highness said: ‘do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?’ they answered: ‘yes.’ Then he said: ‘for whomever I am his master, Ali will be his master. O God! Be friendly with everybody who accepts his wilayah and the enemy of his enemies.’ Bara says: ‘after that, `Umar went to Ali (a.s.) and said: well done O! Son of Abu-Talib, for now you are the master of all believing men and women. (6)
In summary, we should say that several other people of Sunnis ulama and noble men have narrated Hadith of Ghadir in their books sush as: Tirmizi, Ibn Majah, Ibn `Asakir, Ibn Na`im, Ibn Athir, Khawrazmi, Siyuti, Ibn Hajar, Hiythami, Ibn sabbagh Maliki, Qunduzi Hanafi, Ibn Maghazli, Ibn Kathir, Hamwini, Haskani, Ghazali and Bukhari in his history. Although they belong to different groups and religious schools, they have narrated this tradition from the first to fourteen centuries. Their number exceeds three hundred and sixty. (7)


resources and references

1- Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (4), p. 281, Tafsir Kabir Razi (3), p. 636, Sawa`iq ibn Hajar, Tafsir of Tabari.
2- Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (4), p. 372.
3- Al-Khasai Nasai, p. 150.
4- Mustadrik of Hakim (3), p. 109.
5- Sahih of Muslim (4), p. 1873, This tradition has also been narrated by Imam Ahmad, Tirmizi and ibn `Asakir.
6- Musnad of Ahmad ibn Hanbal (4), p. 281, Kanz al-Ummal (13), p. 133, Fazail Al-Khamsah Min Al- Sihah Sittah (1), p.350.
7- With truthful people, p.93.
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Ref: www.makarem.ir


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